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Turtle pulmonary ventilation occurs by using specific groups of abdominal muscles attached to their viscera and shell that pull the lungs ventrally during inspiration, where air is drawn in via a negative pressure gradient Boyle's Law.

The lungs of Testudines are multi-chambered and attached their entire length down the carapace. The number of chambers can vary between taxa , though most commonly they have three lateral chambers, three medial chambers, and one terminal chamber.

Specifically, it is the turtles large liver that pulls or pushes on the lungs. Supporting the lungs is the post-pulmonary septum, which is found in all Testudines, and is thought to prevent the lungs from collapsing.

As mentioned above, the outer layer of the shell is part of the skin; each scute or plate on the shell corresponds to a single modified scale.

The remainder of the skin has much smaller scales, similar to the skin of other reptiles. Turtles do not molt their skins all at once as snakes do, but continuously in small pieces.

When turtles are kept in aquaria, small sheets of dead skin can be seen in the water often appearing to be a thin piece of plastic having been sloughed off when the animals deliberately rub themselves against a piece of wood or stone.

Tortoises also shed skin, but dead skin is allowed to accumulate into thick knobs and plates that provide protection to parts of the body outside the shell.

By counting the rings formed by the stack of smaller, older scutes on top of the larger, newer ones, it is possible to estimate the age of a turtle, if one knows how many scutes are produced in a year.

Terrestrial tortoises have short, sturdy feet. Tortoises are famous for moving slowly, in part because of their heavy, cumbersome shells, which restrict stride length.

Amphibious turtles normally have limbs similar to those of tortoises, except that the feet are webbed and often have long claws.

These turtles swim using all four feet in a way similar to the dog paddle , with the feet on the left and right side of the body alternately providing thrust.

Large turtles tend to swim less than smaller ones, and the very big species, such as alligator snapping turtles, hardly swim at all, preferring to walk along the bottom of the river or lake.

As well as webbed feet, turtles have very long claws, used to help them clamber onto riverbanks and floating logs upon which they bask.

Male turtles tend to have particularly long claws, and these appear to be used to stimulate the female while mating.

While most turtles have webbed feet, some, such as the pig-nosed turtle , have true flippers, with the digits being fused into paddles and the claws being relatively small.

These species swim in the same way as sea turtles do see below. Sea turtles are almost entirely aquatic and have flippers instead of feet.

Sea turtles fly through the water, using the up-and-down motion of the front flippers to generate thrust; the back feet are not used for propulsion but may be used as rudders for steering.

Compared with freshwater turtles, sea turtles have very limited mobility on land, and apart from the dash from the nest to the sea as hatchlings, male sea turtles normally never leave the sea.

Females must come back onto land to lay eggs. They move very slowly and laboriously, dragging themselves forwards with their flippers.

Turtles are thought to have exceptional night vision due to the unusually large number of rod cells in their retinas. Turtles have color vision with a wealth of cone subtypes with sensitivities ranging from the near ultraviolet UVA to red.

Some land turtles have very poor pursuit movement abilities, which are normally found only in predators that hunt quick-moving prey, but carnivorous turtles are able to move their heads quickly to snap.

While typically thought of as mute, turtles make various sounds when communicating. Tortoises may be vocal when courting and mating.

Various species of both freshwater and sea turtles emit numerous types of calls, often short and low frequency, from the time they are in the egg to when they are adults.

These vocalizations may serve to create group cohesion when migrating. It has been reported that wood turtles are better than white rats at learning to navigate mazes.

Turtles are known for displaying a wide variety of mating behaviors, however, they are not known for forming pair-bonds or for being part of a social group.

Males belonging to semi-aquatic and bottom-walking species instead often use their larger size advantage to forcibly mate with a female.

Males in this category resort to using courtship displays in an attempt to gain mating access to a female. Wood turtles are an example of a terrestrial species where the males have a hierarchical ranking system based on dominance through fighting, and it's shown that the males with the highest rank and thus the most wins in fights have the most offspring.

Galapagos tortoises are another example of a species which has a hierarchical rank that is determined by dominance displays, and access to food and mates is regulated by this dominance hierarchy.

The male scorpion mud turtle is an example of a bottom-walking aquatic species that relies on overpowering females with its larger size as a mating strategy.

This exposes her cloaca , and with it exposed, the male can attempt copulation by trying to insert his grasping tail.

Male radiated tortoises are also known to use the force mating strategy wherein they use surrounding vegetation to trap or prevent females from escaping, then pin them down for copulation.

Red-eared sliders are an example of a fully aquatic species in which the male performs a courtship behavior. In this case the male extends his forelegs with the palms facing out and flutters his forelegs in the female's face.

As such, they've evolved certain behaviors to avoid the male's attempts at copulation, such as swimming away, confronting the male followed by biting, or a refusal position in which the female assumes a vertical position with her limbs widely outspread and her plastron facing the male.

Although many turtles spend large amounts of their lives underwater, all turtles and tortoises breathe air and must surface at regular intervals to refill their lungs.

Immersion periods vary between 60 seconds and 1 hour depending on the species. Aquatic respiration in Australian freshwater turtles is currently being studied.

Some species have large cloacal cavities that are lined with many finger-like projections. These projections, called papillae , have a rich blood supply and increase the surface area of the cloaca.

The turtles can take up dissolved oxygen from the water using these papillae, in much the same way that fish use gills to respire.

Like other reptiles , turtles lay eggs that are slightly soft and leathery. The eggs of the largest species are spherical while the eggs of the rest are elongated.

Their albumen is white and contains a different protein from bird eggs, such that it will not coagulate when cooked.

Turtle eggs prepared to eat consist mainly of yolk. In some species, temperature determines whether an egg develops into a male or a female : a higher temperature causes a female, a lower temperature causes a male.

Large numbers of eggs are deposited in holes dug into mud or sand. They are then covered and left to incubate by themselves.

Depending on the species, the eggs will typically take 70— days to hatch. There are no known species in which the mother cares for her young.

Sea turtles lay their eggs on dry, sandy beaches. Immature sea turtles are not cared for by the adults. Turtles can take many years to reach breeding age, and in many cases, breed every few years rather than annually.

Researchers have recently discovered a turtle's organs do not gradually break down or become less efficient over time, unlike most other animals.

It was found that the liver, lungs, and kidneys of a centenarian turtle are virtually indistinguishable from those of its immature counterpart.

This has inspired genetic researchers to begin examining the turtle genome for longevity genes. A group of turtles is known as a bale.

A turtle's diet varies greatly depending on the environment in which it lives. Adult turtles typically eat aquatic plants ; [ citation needed ] invertebrates such as insects , snails , and worms ; and have been reported to occasionally eat dead marine animals.

Several small freshwater species are carnivorous, eating small fish and a wide range of aquatic life. However, protein is essential to turtle growth and juvenile turtles are purely carnivorous.

Sea turtles typically feed on jellyfish , sponges , and other soft-bodied organisms. Some species with stronger jaws have been observed to eat shellfish , while others, such as the green sea turtle , do not eat meat at all and, instead, have a diet largely made up of algae.

Based on body fossils, the first proto-turtles are believed to have existed in the late Triassic Period of the Mesozoic era, about million years ago, and their shell, which has remained a remarkably stable body plan , is thought to have evolved from bony extensions of their backbones and broad ribs that expanded and grew together to form a complete shell that offered protection at every stage of its evolution, even when the bony component of the shell was not complete.

This is supported by fossils of the freshwater Odontochelys semitestacea or "half-shelled turtle with teeth", from the late Triassic, which have been found near Guangling in southwest China.

Odontochelys displays a complete bony plastron and an incomplete carapace, similar to an early stage of turtle embryonic development.

By the late Jurassic , turtles had radiated widely, and their fossil history becomes easier to read. Their exact ancestry has been disputed.

It was believed they are the only surviving branch of the ancient evolutionary grade Anapsida , which includes groups such as procolophonids , millerettids , protorothyrids , and pareiasaurs.

All anapsid skulls lack a temporal opening while all other extant amniotes have temporal openings although in mammals , the hole has become the zygomatic arch.

The millerettids, protorothyrids, and pareiasaurs became extinct in the late Permian period and the procolophonoids during the Triassic.

However, it was later suggested that the anapsid-like turtle skull may be due to reversion rather than to anapsid descent. More recent morphological phylogenetic studies with this in mind placed turtles firmly within diapsids , slightly closer to Squamata than to Archosauria.

Testudines were suggested to have diverged from other diapsids between and million years ago, though the debate is far from settled.

A combined analysis of morphological and molecular data conducted by Lee found turtles to be anapsids though a relationship with archosaurs couldn't be statistically rejected.

The first genome-wide phylogenetic analysis was completed by Wang et al. Using the draft genomes of Chelonia mydas and Pelodiscus sinensis, the team used the largest turtle data set to date in their analysis and concluded that turtles are likely a sister group of crocodilians and birds Archosauria.

The earliest known fully shelled member of the turtle lineage is the late Triassic Proganochelys.

This genus already possessed many advanced turtle traits, and thus probably indicates many millions of years of preceding turtle evolution; this is further supported by evidence from fossil tracks from the Early Triassic of the United States Wyoming and Utah and from the Middle Triassic of Germany , indicating that proto-turtles already existed as early as the Early Triassic.

While this body form is similar to that of ankylosaurs , it resulted from convergent evolution. Turtles are divided into two extant suborders: Cryptodira and Pleurodira.

The Cryptodira is the larger of the two groups and includes all the marine turtles, the terrestrial tortoises, and many of the freshwater turtles.

The Pleurodira are sometimes known as the side-necked turtles, a reference to the way they retract their heads into their shells.

This smaller group consists primarily of various freshwater turtles. Until 3, years ago, the family Meiolaniidae was also extant, but this family is outside the Testudines crown group , belonging to Perichelydia.

Order Testudines Linnaeus, Turtle fossils of hatchling and nestling size have been documented in the scientific literature. The specimen named as Carbonemys cofrinii is around 60 million years old and nearly 2.

On a few rare occasions, paleontologists have succeeded in unearthing large numbers of Jurassic or Cretaceous turtle skeletons accumulated in a single area the Nemegt Formation in Mongolia, the Turtle Graveyard in North Dakota , or the Black Mountain Turtle Layer in Wyoming.

The most spectacular find of this kind to date occurred in in Shanshan County in Xinjiang , where over a thousand ancient freshwater turtles apparently died after the last water hole in an area dried out during a major drought.

Though absent from New Zealand in recent times, turtle fossils are known from the Miocene Saint Bathans Fauna , represented by a meiolaniid and pleurodires.

Some turtles, particularly small terrestrial and freshwater turtles, are kept as pets. Among the most popular are Russian tortoises , spur-thighed tortoises , and red-eared sliders.

In the United States, due to the ease of contracting salmonellosis through casual contact with turtles, the U. Some states have other laws and regulations regarding possession of red-eared sliders as pets because they are looked upon as invasive species or pests where they are not native, but have been introduced through the pet trade.

As of July 1, , it is illegal in Florida to sell any wild type red-eared slider. In Europe, turtle and tortoise keeping became popular in the s and s, when large numbers of wild-caught turtles and tortoises were imported.

This was especially devastating to the Mediterranean tortoise population. In the s the import of wild-caught tortoises started to be banned in various countries.

Most turtles and tortoises for sale in Europe today are captive-bred. Turtles and tortoises are seen by some people as cheap pets that need little care.

The complexity and expense of proper turtle and tortoise husbandry is often underestimated. They also need opportunities to climb, dig and forage.

Most species of tortoise should be fed dark, leafy greens with calcium and vitamin supplements. Turtles require a large tub or aquarium with land areas where they can dry off completely and other areas where they can rest near the water's surface, on a piece of submerged driftwood for example.

Like tortoises, turtles need access to UVB lighting and a varied diet rich in calcium. The flesh of turtles, calipash or calipee , was and still is considered a delicacy in a number of cultures.

Turtles remain a part of the traditional diet on the island of Grand Cayman , so much so that when wild stocks became depleted, a turtle farm was established specifically to raise sea turtles for their meat.

The farm also releases specimens to the wild as part of an effort to repopulate the Caribbean Sea. Fat from turtles is also used in the Caribbean and in Mexico as a main ingredient in cosmetics, marketed under its Spanish name crema de tortuga.

Turtle plastrons the part of the shell that covers a tortoise from the bottom are widely used in traditional Chinese medicine ; according to statistics, Taiwan imports hundreds of tons of plastrons every year.

In February , the Tortoise and Freshwater Turtle Specialist Group published a report about the top 25 species of turtles most likely to become extinct, with a further 40 species at very high risk of becoming extinct.

This list excludes sea turtles, however, both the leatherback and the Kemp's ridley would make the top 25 list. The report is due to be updated in four years time allowing to follow the evolution of the list.

Of the species of freshwater and terrestrial turtles, species are considered Threatened, 73 are either Endangered or Critically Endangered and 1 is Extinct.

Of the 58 species belonging to the family Testudinidae, 33 species are Threatened, 18 are either Endangered or Critically Endangered, 1 is Extinct in the wild and 7 species are Extinct.

Asian species are the most endangered, closely followed by the five endemic species from Madagascar.

Turtles face many threats, including habitat destruction, harvesting for consumption, and the pet trade.

The high extinction risk for Asian species is primarily due to the long-term unsustainable exploitation of turtles and tortoises for consumption and traditional Chinese medicine, and to a lesser extent for the international pet trade.

Efforts have been made by Chinese entrepreneurs to satisfy increasing demand for turtle meat as gourmet food and traditional medicine with farmed turtles, instead of wild-caught ones; according to a study published in , over a thousand turtle farms operated in China.

Nonetheless, wild turtles continue to be caught and sent to market in large number as well as to turtle farms, to be used as breeding stock [93] , resulting in a situation described by conservationists as "the Asian turtle crisis".

Harvesting wild turtles is legal in a number of states in the USA. Some of the catch gets to the local restaurants, while most of it is exported to Asia.

The Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission estimated in that around 3, pounds of softshell turtles were exported each week via Tampa International Airport.

Nonetheless, the great majority of turtles exported from the USA are farm raised. TurtleSAt is a smartphone app that has been developed in Australia in honor of World Turtle Day to help in the conservation of fresh water turtles in Australia.

The app will allow the user to identify turtles with a picture guide and the location of turtles using the phones GPS to record sightings and help find hidden turtle nesting grounds.

The app has been developed because there has been a high per cent of decline of fresh water turtles in Australia due to foxes, droughts, and urban development.

The aim of the app is to reduce the number of foxes and help with targeting feral animal control. Queensland 's shark culling program, which has killed roughly 50, sharks since , has also killed thousands of turtles as bycatch.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Turtle disambiguation. Any reptile of the order Testudines. Turtle, tortoise, and terrapin.

Green sea turtle. African spurred tortoise. Red-eared slider terrapin. Neck retraction in turtles.

Pleurodires retract their neck sideways. Cryptodires retract their neck backwards. Main article: Turtle shell. See also: Animal cognition.

Play media. Main article: Turtle classification. See also: List of Testudines families. Other items in the image are dried lingzhi , snake, luo han guo , and ginseng.

Bulletin of the Peabody Museum of Natural History. Retrieved June 2, Chelonian Research Monographs. CRC Press. International Wildlife Encyclopedia.

Marshall Cavendish. Turtles, Tortoises and Terrapins: Survivors in Armor. Firefly Books. Archived from the original on December 6, Retrieved September 16, Free Press.

Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short. A Latin Dictionary on Perseus Project. Online Etymology Dictionary.

March 1, Systematic Biology. Wyneken, Jeanette, , Bels, V. Vincent L. Journal of Morphology. Scientific Reports. Bibcode : NatSR May 30, Retrieved November 11, Nature Communications.

Bibcode : NatCo July Journal of Comparative Psychology. The New York Times. Retrieved September 15, Eisenberg, J. Advances in the Study of Mammalian Behavior.

Behavioural Processes. November 29, Bibcode : Natur. November 13, Animal Cognition. Journal of Heredity. Animal Behaviour. Bibcode : Oecol..

Archived from the original on March 21, Retrieved November 18, But this work does not protect the turtles from their worst enemy.

Each turtle makes a nest by digging a hole in the sand. Man is the greatest threat to sea turtles.

Sea turtles developed flippers to adapt to life in the sea. Some predators of baby sea turtles are crabs and birds.

The turtle opens its mouth and a fish sees the skin moving around and thinks it is a worm. There are over different kinds of turtles that are in danger in the world.

Turtles and tortoises have always held our fascination. Turtles and tortoises have had a long relationship with humans. In the turtle visual system, color opponency is found in the first synapse between cones and horizontal cells.

De Cambridge English Corpus. Targeted nations are those which conduct commercial shrimp fishing operations within the geographic range of distribution of endangered sea turtles.

Las opiniones mostradas en los ejemplos no representan las opiniones de los editores de Cambridge University Press or de sus licenciantes.

The agreement allows for complimentary protocols to be negotiated with other parts of the world in order to provide for sea turtle conservation.

There was no program for the labeling of shrimp products which are turtle friendly, as is the case with dolphin friendly tuna.

First, it inserts a spherical surface with a specified radius of curvature at the turtle's present location. In the turtle , as for the bird, the lemnothalamic visual pathway is used as the basis for the circuitry shown.

Figure 9 also shows the result of the insertion by the turtle of spherical surface 5 with a radius of curvature of 1.

Synaptic connections involving immunoreactive glycine receptors in the turtle retina. Voltage- and time-dependent potassium conductances enhance the frequency response of horizontal cells in the turtle retina.

The distinction by light and electron microscopy of two types of cone containing colorless oil droplets in the retina of the turtle.

Cone input to bipolar cells in the turtle retina. Interactions leading to horizontal cell responses in the turtle retina.

In fact, like the turtles, there is mind as well as matter all the way down! Some harvesting of shrimp is done on the extreme northwest coast, but turtles are not generally found in that area.

There is a very real need for this, since locals have a taste for both turtle meat and eggs. Click on a collocation to see more examples of it.

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